Location of Identity: A Transcultural European’s Indian Tomb

Conference Abstract: 2016 Annual International Conference of the Society of Architectural Historians

In 1741CE Eustachius de Lannoy, a Flemish-born, Roman Catholic sergeant of Dutch East India Company (VOC) was taken prisoner by Maharaja of Travancore, after the Dutch defeat at Battle of Colachel in south India. De Lannoy subsequently joined Travancore’s army and rose through ranks to become its commander. A man valued greatly by Travancore royals as well as locals, he was fondly called Valiya Kappithan (Great Captain). When he died in 1777CE, he was buried, as per his wishes, within the walls of the church built for him by the maharaja. Yet, in his lifetime, the Christian commander was not allowed into the court of the Hindu king, their relationship built upon religious boundaries prevalent in eighteenth century south India. De Lannoy’s tomb was also never listed as a Dutch tomb, perhaps due to its location outside Dutch-occupied India, or his status as a VOC defector.

The tomb of de Lannoy remains today, at Udayagiri fort in Tamil Nadu, his residence for over thirty-five years. What was the identity of this ‘European-Indian’? How does the tomb re-contextualize his identity as a transcultural being? My paper addresses these questions to locate ambivalent transcultural identities of early modern European “others” in the Indian subcontinent. In doing so, I argue that transcultural identities, as constantly negotiated entities, were crystallized and captured momentarily in works of architecture, such as de Lannoy’s tomb. For this purpose, I analyze the ledger stone of his tomb, including visual and textual material, along with the remains of his church. Finally, this paper will tackle the idea of mutability of early modern identities. I posit that while the eighteenth century European Other could not “go native”, it was possible to negotiate an identity that was both transcultural and local, perhaps resembling diasporic identities we are familiar with today. 

Ivory Atelier: Cosmopolitanism, Transculturality, and Devotion in the Works of Nineteenth-Century Craftsmen of Travancore, India.

Conference Abstract: Association of Historians of Nineteenth-Century 2016 Art Graduate Student Conference

In early nineteenth century, an ivory throne was made for Maharaja Swati Thirunal of Travancore, the most important kingdom on the Malabar Coast of India. Adorned with exquisitely carved ivory plaques filled with floral, geometric, and figural motifs, the throne was a marvelous object made in the form of a takht—a large, square seat, in which the sitter could comfortably rest his raised and folded legs under him. Each plaque was carved to resemble two layers; the abstract, patterned “background” was carved in higher relief than the representational motifs that formed the foreground. These motifs included exotic dancers from the north of the subcontinent, ferocious lions as flag-bearers, royal emblems, and on occasion, stylized tropical fruits and mythical beasts. About twenty years later, a more elaborately sheathed ivory throne was made in Travancore; this time, however, as a royal gift for Queen Victoria of England. The structure, the carving program, and the aesthetic value of the two thrones were vastly different from one another. In contrast to the older throne which exhibits a South Asian aesthetic particularly appealing to Indian royalty, Queen Victoria’s throne was quite evidently “westernized” and its representational framework was overtly political. However, the two thrones shared the distinct double-layered patterned method of carving, quiet unlike ivory carving elsewhere in South Asia.

            In this paper, I analyze the form, technique of construction, and carving program of the two thrones to provide evidence that both thrones were made by the same school of craftsmen. I argue that the developments in design and form, without any accompanying changes in construction techniques, demonstrate the cosmopolitanism of Travancore craftsmen—their ability to maintain artistic continuity while pursuing non-traditional visual strategies, and adapt to rapidly changing political and cultural environments. I also contend that the carving program of the thrones are evidence of transcultural artistic encounters of these craftsmen with art and artists from other regions in the subcontinent (Tamil country immediately east of Travancore, Gujarat in western India, and Sri Lanka) and with contemporaneous European art. I posit that the craftsmen who worked on ivory were not only aware of contemporary trends but they were also keen innovators who continuously appropriated and updated their craft vocabulary with the specific intention to make objects that were aesthetically pleasing to groups both in India and in Europe. Finally, I present these craftsmen as exclusive servants of Travancore, for whom, perfection of the crafted art object was tantamount to devotion to their king. As such, the production of these thrones was an act of piety, equal in stature to the production of carvings for Hindu temple structures. In making this argument, I suggest that at the level of the courtly craftsmen, kingliness and godliness were at the very least comparable devotional structures if not conflated, and therefore, the art that they produced for the king, were also votive offerings to the gods.

            In studying cosmopolitanism, transculturality, and devotion as central features of craft production in Travancore, I offer a way to study South Asian craftsmen through their art as well as situate them within their contemporaneous sociopolitical context in which both transnational politics and localized religion functioned as artistic determinants. Simultaneously, my study offers a glimpse into social hierarchies of courtly artists and their impact on political and cultural mediations in Eurasia.


Tell-tale Beds: Translocal Practices and Transcultural Negotiations in Early Modern Malabar

Conference Abstract: 2014 University of Chicago South Asia Graduate Students Conference

Furniture, such as beds, chairs, and various forms of cabinetry, has had a long history of production in South India and was custom-manufactured for export or use by Europeans.[1] In mid-to-late 18th century, two beds of carved wood were commissioned on the Malabar Coast of South India. In the 1740s, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) gifted one of them to Maharaja Marthanda Varma, ruler of Travancore. The other was exported to Portugal in the 1770s, and used by the Queen’s Secretary at the Royal Palace in Lisbon. Stylistically similar, the beds, in their carvings, combined Indian motifs and European subject matter. Such visual hybridization made the beds, at once, familiar and foreign to both Indians and Europeans. Thus, while the state bed of Marthanda Varma was a valued ‘European’ gift, the bed at Lisbon Palace was considered an exotic ‘Indian’ object.

In this paper I analyze the style and structure of the two beds, examining both South Indian and European artistic traditions displayed. By tracing South Indian stylistic motifs and techniques, I argue that artistic practice in the early modern period in South India was spatiotemporally porous; that is, across borders and communities, there existed in the post-Vijayanagara period, complex yet common visual traditions, made possible due to movement of craftspeople and creative adaptation of artistic techniques. Simultaneously, I trace European subject matter represented on these beds, along with an examination of the sociopolitical contexts within which these luxury objects were used. Employing these data, I exhibit that the hybridized style of manufacture of these beds as well as, the perception of these beds as high quality luxury goods in both India and Europe, suggest a commensurability of taste in early modern Eurasia. In doing so, I claim that dynamic encounters in early modern South Asia, developed a visual palette, that was able to convey both familiarity and foreignness to both Indian and European consumers. Finally, I argue that, in making use of this visual palette, the beds are evidence of translocal artistic encounters in early modern South India, and, were powerful interlocutors in transcultural negotiations between groups of Indians and Europeans in this period.


[1] Amin Jaffer, “Life in Early British India,” in Furniture from British India and Ceylon: A Catalogue of the Collections in the Victoria and Albert Museum and Peabody Essex Museum, ed. Amin Jaffer et al. (Salem, Mass.: Peabody Essex Museum, 2001), 14.